Klasies river mouth site dating
Africa: Tanzania: Ngaloba Kenya: Guomde Ethiopia: Omo Kibish and Herto Democratic Republic of Congo: Katanda South Africa: Border Cave and Klasies River Mouth Asia (the following are earliest regional sites): Israel: Skhul and Jebel Qafzeh Mongolia: Ordos Europe (the following are famous sites): France: Cro Magnon (the most famous site in France) Germany, Italy, Spain Australia (the following are earliest regional sites): Mungo Lake and Kow Swamp New World (the earliest regional site): Chile: Mesa Verde Too numerous to mention, as one or more individuals work at each site and sites are numerous, especially in Eurasia My discussion of early AMH will cover their existence and culture prior to the Mesolithic period (~12 kya) only and will focus primarily on European sites due to the paucity of information from earlier and non-European sites.
The origin of our species is thought to have occurred in Africa sometime prior to 200 kya, based on fossil and genetic evidence.
Fossil human remains were found in several layers of the Klasies River occupations, fire-blackened fragments of skulls and other bones showing cut marks.
While this alone would not convince researchers that cannibalism had taken place, the pieces were mixed with the rubble of kitchen debris--thrown out with the shells and bones of the remainder of the meal.
Middle Eastern sites dated to The earliest date for AMH in Eurasia is from the Ordos site in Mongolia at 50 kya. Sites are found in Germany, France, Italy, and Spain, with the best-known site being the Cro-Magnon site in Les Ezies, France.
The Cro-Magnon site gave the name to the earliest people of Western Europe and is the location where the “Old Man of Cro-Magnon” (see Figure 36.3) was found in 1868 by Louis Lartet. They reached the New World, either by rafting along the shoreline from Asia during extremely low sea levels that characterized the last glacial maximum (~17 kya) or by crossing the Bering Land Bridge at a later point in time.
Most of the oldest AMH material has been discovered in more recent times, relative to early discoveries of Asian Homo erectus and neandertal remains.
Apart from the debris of living, researchers have also found fragmentary evidence in these earliest levels of the earliest of ritual behavior--cannibalism.Beginning about 125,000 years ago, a handful of our human ancestors lived in a handful of caves on the Tsitsikamma coast of South Africa, near the small stream called Klasies River.The site located at the very southern tip of Africa provides evidence of the behavior of at our very earliest moments of existence, and a slightly uncomfortable peek into our distant past.Dates in South America (~14 kya) are older than those in North America and represent the former mode of travel.Sea levels dropped by as much as 120 m during that time.
Material from the Herto site in Ethiopia (Middle Awash area of the Afar Depression) is dated to 160 kya and sometimes referred to as Homo idaltu or Homo sapiens idaltu.